Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) in meat plants
HACCP is an internationally recognised way of managing food safety and protecting consumers. All food business operators except farmers and growers are required by EU food hygiene legislation, to implement and maintain hygiene procedures based on HACCP principles.
EU Regulation 852/2004 (Article 5) requires food business operators, including meat plant operators to implement and maintain hygiene procedures based on HACCP principles. This legislation replaced the Meat (HACCP) Regulations 2002.
The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is internationally accepted as the system of choice for food safety management. It is a preventative approach to food safety based on the following seven principles:
- identify any hazards that must be prevented eliminated or reduced
- identify the critical control points (CCPs) at the steps at which control is essential
- establish critical limits at CCPs
- establish procedures to monitor the CCPs
- establish corrective actions to be taken if a CCP is not under control
- establish procedures to verify whether the above procedures are working effectively
- establish documents and records to demonstrate the effective application of the above measures
The HACCP approach provides a systematic way of identifying food safety hazards and making sure that they are being controlled day-in, day-out. This involves the following four steps: Plan, Do, Check. These steps are described in more detail below.
|Plan what needs to be done to maintain food safety and write it down.|
|It is particularly important to:
|Hazards||Microbiological, Chemical, Physical|
|Controls||Good Hygiene Practices Maintenance, Cleaning, Pest control, Training, Personal hygiene, Traceability, Waste Management, Wrapping & Packaging, Transport|
|Operational hygiene controls Raw Materials, Animal welfare & transport, Slaughter, Dressing, Storage, Cutting, Processing|
|Documentation||HACCP plans, Staff instructions, Monitoring and Corrective action procedures, Daily records|
|Do what you planned to do to maintain food safety.|
|Check that you are doing what you planned to do to maintain food safety and write down what was checked and when.|
Verification incl. Micro testing
|Documentation (see above)|
|Act to correct any food safety problems and write down what has been done about the problem and when.|
|Corrective actions||Documentation (see above)|
Some more information on hazards, controls, documentation and HACCP training can be found below.
The seven principles aim to focus attention on the identification and control of microbiological, as well as chemical and physical food safety hazards during production. The hazard assessment and the regular monitoring of critical control measures must be documented to provide the basis for audit checks and may provide evidence of due diligence in the event of legal action.
In meat plants HACCP plans will focus on control measures that can reduce the likelihood of contamination of meat from microbiological hazards, such as Salmonella, E.coli O157 and Campylobacter, during production. These meat-borne pathogens can be carried by healthy animals and cannot be detected by sight or smell.
Although thorough cooking kills most bacteria, meat may be handled by lots of people before it is cooked and the bacteria will spread to other foods that may not be cooked. Bacteria multiply very quickly, especially in warm conditions. Retailers and consumers need to take precautions, including temperature controls and keeping raw meat and cooked meat and other ready to eat foods separate.
Conscientious implementation of HACCP principles by plant operators demonstrates their commitment to food safety; improves employee awareness of their role in protecting consumers, and emphasises management's responsibility for the safe production of meat.
Food safety management is achieved by a combination of good hygiene practices (legal requirements for which are in Regulation 852/2004) and operational hygiene procedures (legal requirements for meat production are in Regulation 853/2004).
Guidance on these legal requirements may be found in the Guide to Food Hygiene and Other Regulations for the UK Meat Industry (see Meat Industry Guide below).
Documentation is an important part of food safety management. Records should be easy to keep up to date as they provide evidence of the operator's thinking and decisions. Where visual monitoring is necessary, for example to ensure carcasses are free of visible faecal contamination, records can be limited to 'exception reporting'. This means making a record only when there is a problem or something unusual happens and noting the corrective action taken as a result. See Model Documents and Food Safety Management Diary below.
Suggested model documents, which can be found at the link towards the end of this page, are available for food business operators to use or adapt to help manage food safety issues such as maintenance, cleaning, staff training and temperature checks.
Food Safety Management (FSM) Diary for Meat Producers
The dairy has been produced for meat producers to keep important information about the hygienic operation of their food business for the year. The diary can be found at the link towards the end of this page.
Food business operators need an understanding of HACCP principles so that they can set up and maintain HACCP-based procedures. Staff should also be aware of the importance of the procedures they carry out in minimising the spread of food-borne hazards, which may be biological (e.g. E.coli O157 or campylobacter); physical (e.g. wool, metal); or chemical (e.g. veterinary medicine or cleaning product residues).
- Training is available from local colleges, specialist training companies and consultants, or may be provided in-house. HACCP training is more effective if it is directly related to the product(s) that a food business handles.
- An accredited one or two-day course 'Meat Plant Manager's Hygiene & HACCP' is available and participants are eligible for a qualification. Contact the Meat Training Council (tel: 01908 231062; email: firstname.lastname@example.org) or the Food & Drink Sector Skills, Belfast (tel: 028 9032 9296, email: email@example.com).
Meat plant HACCP manual and CD-ROM
The manual was produced in 2002 to provide a clear and colourful training guide on HACCP principles and their application. It was developed with industry assistance and the material was trialled with small businesses during a pilot plant study. The manual includes the syllabus for the 'Meat Plant Manager's Hygiene & HACCP' course described above, and so will be of interest to trainers. A CD-ROM version of the manual is available.
The Food Standards Agency has also produced the following guidance material for meat plant operators:
- the Meat Industry Guide (MIG) – this guide to the legislation includes a chapter on HACCP, with a HACCP plan template and a generic HACCP plan (selected steps for slaughter and cutting)
- a short guide to completing a HACCP Plan – explains how to use the HACCP Plan template
- the Meat Plant HACCP Guidance Pack – contains several of the documents described above:
- a short guide to completing a HACCP Plan
- Meat Industry Guide HACCP chapter
- Model Documents
- Food Safety Management Diary
Copies of guidance material
CDs of the HACCP Manual, the Meat Plant HACCP Guidance Pack and the Meat Industry Guide are available on request by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org.
If you have any queries, please call Tolulope Odeleye on 020 7 276 8369.
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Monday 14 June 2010
Regulation (EC) 2073/2005 on Microbiological Criteria has applied to food of animal origin from 1 January 2006. They include carcass testing requirements, including criteria for salmonella for red meat and poultry carcasses.