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Levels and trends of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from chicken in the UK

Levels and trends of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from chicken in the UK

The acknowledgements, liability statement and abbreviations for the levels and trends of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from chicken in the UK report.

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Liability statement

This report has been produced by the UK Health Security Agency (the UKHSA) under a Memorandum of Understanding placed between the Food Standards Agency (the FSA) and UKHSA. The views expressed herein are not necessarily those of the FSA. UKHSA warrants that all reasonable skill and care has been used in preparing this report. Notwithstanding this warranty, the UKHSA shall not be under any liability for loss of profit, business, revenues or any special indirect or consequential damage of any nature whatsoever or loss of anticipated saving or for any increased costs sustained by the client or his or her servants or agents arising in any way whether directly or indirectly as a result of reliance on this report or of any error or defect in this report.


The authors would like to thank the following people: 

  • All staff who was involved in the successful delivery of this project from the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) and UKHSA through the data collection and analysis
  • The Department of the Environment and Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) for support and funding for data collection
  • Colleagues in UKHSA reference laboratory at Colindale for whole-genome-sequencing derived data.
  • The FSA for funding this work


Acronym Definition of term
AMR Antimicrobial resistance
With terms used to describe the antimicrobial resistance levels according to EU zoonoses reports (EFSA, 2018), defined as:
Rare: less than 0.1 %
Very low: 0.1 % to 1.0 %
Low: more than 1.0 % to 10.0 %
Moderate: more than 10.0 % to 20.0 %
High: more than 20.0 % to 50.0 %
Very high: more than 50.0 % to 70.0 %
Extremely high: more than 70.0 %
BPC British Poultry Council
Broiler Chicken reared for meat
ºC  Degrees Celsius
GBRU Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference unit
Cfu Colony forming units
CI Confidence Interval
CIP Ciprofloxacin
ECOFF Epidemiological Cut Off value (with respect to antimicrobial resistance)
ERY Erythromycin
EU European Union
FSA Food Standards Agency
FSS Food Standards Scotland
G Gram
GEN Gentamicin
HP-CIA High Priority Critically Important Antibiotics
H Hours
ISO International Organisation for Standardisation
L Litre
mCCDA modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate Agar
MIC Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
mg Milligram
NA Not applicable
NAL Nalidixic Acid
RUMA Responsible use of medicines in Agriculture Alliance
spp. Species
STR Streptomycin
TET Tetracycline
UKAS United Kingdom Accreditation Service
UKHSA UK Healthy Security Agency (formerly Public Health England)
WGS Whole Genome Sequencing